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|Early Modern English (1500-1800)|
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William Tyndale (sometimes spelled Tindale or Tindall) (circa 1494 - October 6, 1536) was a 16th century religious reformer and scholar who translated the Bible into the Early Modern English of his day. Although numerous partial and complete English translations had been made from the 7th century onward, Tyndale's was the first to take advantage of the new medium of print, which allowed for its wide distribution. In 1535 Tyndale was tried for heresy and treason and then strangled and burnt at the stake.
A facsimile of Tyndale's 1526 New Testament with both title pages added to make it a 'complete' edition. 2013-12-03 05:19:49. ESV Bible Web Service API – Crossway (free for non-commercial use) API access to the Holy Bible, English Standard Version. The ESV API is available in HTML, plain text, and the XML format used to store the text. NLT API – Tyndale House Publishers (free for non-commercial use) API access to the New Living Translation of the Bible. 1536 The William Tyndale New Testament. Download 1 file. SINGLE PAGE PROCESSED JP2 ZIP download. Download 1 file. Tyndale English Bible - This is the first formal bible translation in English. KJV Borrowed much of it's text from the Tyndale Bible. For years this has been one of the leading and most read. TYNDALE HOUSE PUBLISHERS CAROL STREAM, ILLINOIS NLT Thinline Reference ThinlineReferenceNLTfullinterior.indb 3 1/15/2020 11:32:09 AM.
Much of Tyndale's work eventually found its way to the King James Version (or Authorised Version) of the Bible, published in 1611, which, though the work of 54 independent scholars, is based primarily on Tyndale's translations.
William Tyndale was born around 1494, probably in North Nibley near Dursley, Gloucestershire. The Tyndales were also known under the name Hychyns (Hitchins), and it was as William Hychyns that he was educated at Magdalen Hall, Oxford (now part of Hertford College), where he was admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Arts in 1512, the same year he became a sub-deacon. He was made Master of Arts in July 1515, three months after he had been ordained into the priesthood. The MA degree allowed him to start studying theology, but the official course did not include the study of scripture. This horrified Tyndale and he organised private groups for teaching and discussing the scriptures. He was a gifted linguist (fluent in French, Greek, Hebrew, German, Italian, Latin, Spanish and of course his native English) and subsequently went to Cambridge (possibly studying under Erasmus, whose 1503 Enchiridion Militis Christiani - 'Handbook of the Christian Knight' - he translated into English), where he is believed to have met Thomas Bilney and John Frith. No contemporary records survive which show Tyndale at Cambridge.
He became chaplain in the house of Sir John Walsh at Little Sodbury in about 1521, and tutor to his children. His opinions involved him in controversy with his fellow clergymen and around 1522 he was summoned before the Chancellor of the Diocese of Worcester on a charge of heresy. By now he had already determined to translate the Bible into English: he was convinced that the way to God was through His word and that scripture should be available even to 'a boy that driveth the plough'.
From Foxe's Book of Martyr's ' 'There dwelt not far off a certain doctor, that he been chancellor to a bishop, who had been of old, familiar acquaintance with Master Tyndale, and favored him well; unto whom Master Tyndale went and opened his mind upon divers questions of the Scripture: for to him he durst be bold to disclose his heart. Unto whom the doctor said, 'Do you not know that the pope is very Antichrist, whom the Scripture speaketh of? But beware what you say; for if you shall be perceived to be of that opinion, it will cost you your life.'
Not long after, Master Tyndale happened to be in the company of a certain divine, recounted for a learned man, and, in communing and disputing with him, he drove him to that issue, that the said great doctor burst out into these blasphemous words, 'We were better to be without God's laws than the pope's.' Master Tyndale, hearing this, full of godly zeal, and not bearing that blasphemous saying, replied, 'I defy the pope, and all his laws;' and added, 'If God spared him life, ere many years he would cause a boy that driveth the plough to know more of the Scripture than he did.'
With a sense of vocation, he left for London in 1523 to seek permission and other help from the Church. In particular he hoped for support from Bishop Cuthbert Tunstall, a well-known classicist whom Erasmus had praised after working with him on a Greek New Testament, but the bishop, like many highly-placed churchmen, was uncomfortable with the idea of the Bible in the vernacular and told Tyndale he had no room for him in the Bishop's Palace. Tyndale preached and studied 'at his book' (Foxe) in London for some time, relying on the help of a cloth merchant, Humphrey Monmouth. He then left England under a pseudonym and landed at Hamburg in 1524 with the work he had done so far on his translation of the New Testament. He is said to have visited Luther at Wittenberg, though there is no evidence for this, and in the following year completed his translation, with assistance from Observant friar William Roy.
In 1525 publication of his work by Peter Quentell in Cologne was interrupted by anti-Lutheran influence, and it was not until 1526 that a full edition of the New Testament was produced by the printer Peter Schoeffer in Worms, a safe city for church reformers. More copies were soon being printed in Antwerp. The book was smuggled into England and Scotland, and was condemned in October 1526 by Tunstall, who issued warnings to booksellers and had copies burned in public.
Following the publication of the New Testament, Cardinal Wolsey condemned Tyndale as a heretic and demanded his arrest.
Tyndale went into hiding, possibly for a time in Hamburg, and carried on working. He revised his New Testament and began translating the Old Testament and writing various treatises. In 1530 he wrote The Practyse of Prelates, which seemed to move him briefly to the Catholic side through its opposition to Henry VIII's divorce. This resulted in the king's wrath being directed at him: he asked the emperor Charles V to have Tyndale seized and returned to England.
Eventually, he was betrayed to the authorities. He was arrested in Antwerp in 1535 and held in the castle of Vilvoorde near Brussels.
From Foxe's Book of Martyr's : Master Tyndale, remaining in prison, was proffered an advocate and a procurator; the which he refused, saying that he would make answer for himself. He had so preached to them who had him in charge, and such as was there conversant with him in the Castle that they reported of him, that if he were not a good Christian man, they knew not whom they might take to be one.
He was tried on a charge of heresy in 1536 and condemned to the stake, despite Thomas Cromwell's attempted intercession on his behalf. He was mercifully strangled, and his dead body was burnt, on 6 October 1536. His final words reportedly were: 'Oh Lord, open the King of England's eyes'.
In translating the Bible, Tyndale introduced new words into the English language:
- Jehovah (from a transliterated Hebrew construction in the Old Testament; composed from the tetragrammaton YHWH and the vowels of : YaHoWaH)
- Passover (as the name for the Jewish holiday, Pesach or Pesah),
- Atonement (= at + onement), which goes beyond mere ' reconciliation'=' to=' mean=' 'to=' unite'=' or=' cover',=' which=' springs=' from=' the=' hebrew=' kippur,=' old=' testament=' version=' of=' kippur=' being=' covering=' doorposts=' with=' blood,=' 'day=' atonement'.<=' em='>
A bronze statue by Sir Joseph Boehm commemorating the life and work of Tyndale was erected In Victoria Embankment Gardens on the Thames Embankment, London in 1884. It shows the reformer's right hand on an open Bible, which in turn is resting on an early printing press.
There is also a memorial tower, the Tyndale Monument, erected in 1866 and prominent for miles around, on a hill above his birthplace of North Nibley.
The site in Vilvoorde, Belgium (15 minutes north of Brussels by train) where Tyndale was burned is also marked by a memorial. It was erected in 1913 by Friends of the Trinitarian Bible Society of London and the Belgium Bible Society.
- Adapted from J.I. Mombert, 'Tyndale, William,' in Philip Schaff, Johann Jakob Herzog, et al, eds., The New Schaff-Herzog Encyclopedia of Religious Knowledge, New York: Funk & Wagnalls, 1904, reprinted online by the Christian Classics Ethereal Library. Additional references are available there.
- David Daniell, William Tyndale, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004
This article might use material from a Wikipedia article, which is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.
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Table Of Interest
- 1 Updated List Of All Universities In Canada 2020/2021 For Admission Best Canadian Universities
- 1.1 Updated List Of All Universities In Canada 2020/2021 For Admission Best Canadian Universities
- 1.2 Updated List Of All Universities In Canada 2020/2021 For Admission Best Canadian Universities
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Here you shall get the correct and complete list of all universities in Canada so you can make a choice of school for yourself in 2019.
However, it is relevant to note that Universities in Canada are established and operate under provincial government charters and that most schools are members of Universities Canada which was formerly called the Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC).
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Nonetheless, note that each Canadian university is autonomous in academic matters including policies and procedures of quality assurance of its programs, instructors and procedures.
Likewise, membership of Universities Canada, and the university’s provincial government charter, are seen as serving in lieu of institutional accreditation, both in Canada and abroad.
Eight Canadian provinces have established bodies to provide a second level of quality assurance at universities. However, Saskatchewan and Newfoundland and Labrador do not have provincial quality assurance agencies.
Without wasting much of your time, lets quickly head to the complete and updated list of Universities to study in canada for 2020.
Updated List Of All Universities In Canada 2020/2021 For Admission Best Canadian Universities
Before proceeding, note that there are 96 universities in Canada as of 2016 and this is almost 2019 and some new ones might just be cooking. However, at least 1.8 million students are enrolled in university every academic year and programs are offered to graduating high school students through choice.
But it is at this point important to note that students must maintain specific entering averages, which generally range from 65–85%, depending on criteria set by the chosen university.
On campus residences are available at 95% of universities in Canada and most of these schools include a meal plan and general utilities while residence is optional at all post-secondary campuses
Firstly, it is relevant to note that degree programs generally last three to four years, though some programs may take longer to complete due to cooperative education (Co-op) programs or joint programs with colleges which are touted for offering practical experience.
However, tuition is based on program material and content which varies in price. For many programs, more general courses will be taken in first year while “program specific courses” begin in year two.
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Some universities such as University of Toronto require admission separate from initial admission from high school into specific programs based on internal standards achieved in first year (i.e. a set grade point average)
Updated List Of All Universities In Canada 2020/2021 For Admission Best Canadian Universities
In no particular order, here are the complete list of Universities in Canada to study for admission purposes for the current academic year.
The public Universities in Canada include;
- Athabasca University
- MacEwan University
- Mount Royal University
- University of Alberta
- University of Calgary
- University of Lethbridge
- Capilano University
- Emily Carr University of Art and Design
- Kwantlen Polytechnic University
- Royal Roads University
- Simon Fraser University
- Thompson Rivers University
- University of British Columbia
- University of Victoria
- University of the Fraser Valley
- University of Northern British Columbia
- Vancouver Island University
- Brandon University
- University College of the North
- University of Manitoba
- University of Winnipeg
- Université de Saint-Boniface
- Mount Allison University
- St. Thomas University
- University of New Brunswick
- Université de Moncton
- Memorial University of Newfoundland
- Acadia University
- Cape Breton University
- Dalhousie University
- University of King’s College
- Mount Saint Vincent University
- NSCAD University
- Saint Francis Xavier University
- Saint Mary’s University
- Université Sainte-Anne
- Algoma University
- Brock University
- Carleton University
- Dominican University College
- Lakehead University
- Laurentian University
- McMaster University
- Nipissing University
- OCAD University
- Queen’s University
- Saint Paul University
- Royal Military College of Canada
- Ryerson University
- Trent University
- University of Guelph
- University of Ontario Institute of Technology
- University of Ottawa
- University of Toronto
- Huron University College
- University of Waterloo
- University of Western Ontario
- University of Windsor
- Wilfrid Laurier University
- York University
- University of Prince Edward Island
- Bishop’s University
- Concordia University
- École de technologie supérieure
- École nationale d’administration publique
- École Polytechnique de Montréal
- HEC Montréal
- Institut national de la recherche scientifique
- McGill University
- Université de Montréal
- Université de Sherbrooke
- Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue
- Université du Québec en Outaouais
- Université du Québec à Chicoutimi
- Université du Québec à Montréal
- Université du Québec à Rimouski
- Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières
- Université Laval
- First Nations University of Canada
- University of Regina
- University of Saskatchewan
Private Universities In Canada
Below are the public Universities in Canada you may want to gain entrance into for the 2019 academic year.
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Above is a complete and updated list of all Universities in Canada (public and Private Universities).
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